Efficiencies, losses of liquid versus dry-type transformers

There are important tradeoffs to be made when moving transformers from outdoor locations to inside a facility.

08/21/2012


I saw a design for very large data center project a few years ago, that used twenty-four 3,000-kVA cast resin units located inside the facility, close-coupled to low voltage switchgear, in a wise "loadcenter" approach (with RC snubbers on the primary of every unit). That arrangement probably eliminated at least a million pounds of underground copper that would have been otherwise required to connect transformers to switchgear.

However, there are important tradeoffs to be made when moving transformers from outdoor locations to inside the facility. One obvious tradeoff is that indoor electrical rooms need to be enlarged to accommodate the physical space requirements of the transformers (which can be significant, especially if they include primary air switches).

Secondly, the heat from the losses of the transformers now is exhausted to inside the building, instead of simply being vented to outdoor air. In most cases, that heat will result in additional loading on the plant’s cooling system, which usually will greatly increase the magnitude of wasted energy. You have the waste heat due to losses rejected by the transformers inside the building, plus the energy consumed by the cooling system to remove that same waste heat from the building. So, efficiency becomes even more important when moving the transformers indoors.

The table below shows a comparison of four styles of transformers, with "typical" efficiencies, in the facility in the above example. Assumptions in the table are that transformers are running at average loading of 75% and that average cost of energy is $0.07 per kWH. The right column uses the Cooper FR3 Envirotemp HDC transformer as baseline, and shows the incremental cost of the other three types, using those assumptions.

Comparison of Transformer Types and Parasitic Wasted Energy

Transformer
Construction
Type
Efficiency at
75% Average
Load
Energy Wasted
Annually,
Incl. HVAC
Incremental Annual
Cost of Wasted
Energy
FR3 Liquid HDC, 55 C
99.6%
3.80 MW-Hr
$0
Cast Coil, 80 C Rise
99.2%
8.89 MW-Hr
$356,440
VPI or Cast Coil Dry, 115 C Rise
98.7%

15.32 MW-Hr

$806,384

VPI Dry, 150 C Rise
98.4%
19.62 MW-Hr
$1,203,098


Some readers will argue that there are designs of dry-type and cast coil transformers available with higher efficiencies than those typical values listed in the table. That’s true, but improving efficiency in any dry-type design almost always involves large increases in physical size and in initial cost (and often, involves large and difficult-to-manage increases in inrush current on energization).

The point is, that a liquid HDC transformer, with its average winding temperature operating at 55 C above ambient temperature, will always produce lower losses and less heat than a dry-type transformer with its windings running at an 80 C, 115 C, or 150 C temperature above ambient air temperature.



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Consulting-Specifying Engineer's Product of the Year (POY) contest is the premier award for new products in the HVAC, fire, electrical, and...
Consulting-Specifying Engineer magazine is dedicated to encouraging and recognizing the most talented young individuals...
The MEP Giants program lists the top mechanical, electrical, plumbing, and fire protection engineering firms in the United States.
Boiler basics; 2017 Product of the Year winners; Manufacturing facilities Q&A; Building integration; Piping and pumping systems
2017 MEP Giants; Mergers and acquisitions report; ASHRAE 62.1; LEED v4 updates and tips; Understanding overcurrent protection
Integrating electrical and HVAC for energy efficiency; Mixed-use buildings; ASHRAE 90.4; Wireless fire alarms assessment and challenges
Power system design for high-performance buildings; mitigating arc flash hazards
Transformers; Electrical system design; Selecting and sizing transformers; Grounded and ungrounded system design, Paralleling generator systems
Commissioning electrical systems; Designing emergency and standby generator systems; VFDs in high-performance buildings
As brand protection manager for Eaton’s Electrical Sector, Tom Grace oversees counterfeit awareness...
Amara Rozgus is chief editor and content manager of Consulting-Specifier Engineer magazine.
IEEE power industry experts bring their combined experience in the electrical power industry...
Michael Heinsdorf, P.E., LEED AP, CDT is an Engineering Specification Writer at ARCOM MasterSpec.
Automation Engineer; Wood Group
System Integrator; Cross Integrated Systems Group
Fire & Life Safety Engineer; Technip USA Inc.
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