Case study: Bundling performance

Although LCCA of individual system alternates is often valuable, it is important to recognize the whole building return on investment that is the basis for a building’s overall success. A brief example of such an analysis is included here for the Stanford Yang and Yamazaki Environment and Energy Building.

03/21/2012


Figure 4: This LCCA shows six sequential strategy bundles and the predicted summation building bundle in red at the time of design. Courtesy: ArupThe results show the diversity of financial returns when energy investments are grouped into load reduction, passive systems, active efficient systems, energy recovery, self generation, and renewable energy offsets. The bold red line indicates the bundled performance of all strategies taken together. The results of this analysis helped convince Stanford University to elevate the performance of all future new and retrofit projects to a LEED Gold/Platinum level of energy performance.

Post-occupancy review

Figure 5: This chart models the effect of a post-occupancy performance audit and incentive award. Courtesy: ArupEnergy consumption models developed during building design rarely match actual operating energy consumption when buildings are built and operated. Instead, energy models produced during design are intended to be indicative of relative performance between a code-derived baseline model (e.g., ASHRAE 90.1 or Title 24 compliant) and a design model reflecting the actual building design.

Figure 6: This conceptual diagram illustrates the stack driven natural ventilation system. Courtesy: ArupThe focus on relative versus actual consumption is widely considered acceptable and is attributed to differences between simulation assumptions and actual operating conditions that influence energy consumption. Such conditions include changes to scheduling of equipment and lighting, occupancy density and behavior, climate variation, construction variances, and improper or incomplete commissioning. Some of these conditions are appropriate and can be addressed in a calibrated model, while others reflect an area of physical or operational deficiency that should be remedied.

Comparison and scenario evaluation of the Y2E2 facility post-occupancy showed that it uses more energy in absolute terms than the design stage model predicted. It also showed that the building saves more energy than initially predicted. As a result, there are larger absolute cost savings that actually provided a better return on investment. It should be noted that the percentage increase in relative energy performance remained consistent and only the absolute values varied. The caution from this review is that even though building physics can predict the relative performance of a building well, the absolute measure is more difficult, highlighting the need for rigorous sensitivity studies.

Roberts is an associate principal and energy and resources business leader in Arup’s San Francisco office. His experience ranges from climate-responsive building engineering and consulting to community energy systems, net-zero energy, and climate-positive design. Rhodes is a senior engineer in Arup’s San Francisco office, specializing in high-performance mechanical system design and energy monitoring. Hespe is a senior energy and sustainability designer in Arup’s San Francisco office, specializing in passive and ecological building design.



Consulting-Specifying Engineer's Product of the Year (POY) contest is the premier award for new products in the HVAC, fire, electrical, and...
Consulting-Specifying Engineer magazine is dedicated to encouraging and recognizing the most talented young individuals...
The MEP Giants program lists the top mechanical, electrical, plumbing, and fire protection engineering firms in the United States.
2017 MEP Giants; Mergers and acquisitions report; ASHRAE 62.1; LEED v4 updates and tips; Understanding overcurrent protection
Integrating electrical and HVAC for energy efficiency; Mixed-use buildings; ASHRAE 90.4; Wireless fire alarms assessment and challenges
Integrated building networks, NFPA 99, recover waste heat, chilled water systems, Internet of Things, BAS controls
Transformers; Electrical system design; Selecting and sizing transformers; Grounded and ungrounded system design, Paralleling generator systems
Commissioning electrical systems; Designing emergency and standby generator systems; VFDs in high-performance buildings
Tying a microgrid to the smart grid; Paralleling generator systems; Previewing NEC 2017 changes
As brand protection manager for Eaton’s Electrical Sector, Tom Grace oversees counterfeit awareness...
Amara Rozgus is chief editor and content manager of Consulting-Specifier Engineer magazine.
IEEE power industry experts bring their combined experience in the electrical power industry...
Michael Heinsdorf, P.E., LEED AP, CDT is an Engineering Specification Writer at ARCOM MasterSpec.
Automation Engineer; Wood Group
System Integrator; Cross Integrated Systems Group
Fire & Life Safety Engineer; Technip USA Inc.
This course focuses on climate analysis, appropriateness of cooling system selection, and combining cooling systems.
This course will help identify and reveal electrical hazards and identify the solutions to implementing and maintaining a safe work environment.
This course explains how maintaining power and communication systems through emergency power-generation systems is critical.
Consulting-Specifying Engineer's Product of the Year (POY) contest is the premier award for new products in the HVAC, fire, electrical, and...
Consulting-Specifying Engineer magazine is dedicated to encouraging and recognizing the most talented young individuals...
The MEP Giants program lists the top mechanical, electrical, plumbing, and fire protection engineering firms in the United States.
2017 MEP Giants; Mergers and acquisitions report; ASHRAE 62.1; LEED v4 updates and tips; Understanding overcurrent protection
Integrating electrical and HVAC for energy efficiency; Mixed-use buildings; ASHRAE 90.4; Wireless fire alarms assessment and challenges
Integrated building networks, NFPA 99, recover waste heat, chilled water systems, Internet of Things, BAS controls
Transformers; Electrical system design; Selecting and sizing transformers; Grounded and ungrounded system design, Paralleling generator systems
Commissioning electrical systems; Designing emergency and standby generator systems; VFDs in high-performance buildings
Tying a microgrid to the smart grid; Paralleling generator systems; Previewing NEC 2017 changes
As brand protection manager for Eaton’s Electrical Sector, Tom Grace oversees counterfeit awareness...
Amara Rozgus is chief editor and content manager of Consulting-Specifier Engineer magazine.
IEEE power industry experts bring their combined experience in the electrical power industry...
Michael Heinsdorf, P.E., LEED AP, CDT is an Engineering Specification Writer at ARCOM MasterSpec.
Automation Engineer; Wood Group
System Integrator; Cross Integrated Systems Group
Fire & Life Safety Engineer; Technip USA Inc.
This course focuses on climate analysis, appropriateness of cooling system selection, and combining cooling systems.
This course will help identify and reveal electrical hazards and identify the solutions to implementing and maintaining a safe work environment.
This course explains how maintaining power and communication systems through emergency power-generation systems is critical.
click me